WiMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a broadband wireless access technology (broadband wireless access or BWA abbreviated) which have high speed access with a wide range. WiMAX is an evolution from previous BWA technology with the features of the more interesting. In addition to higher data speeds can be given, WiMAX is also a technology with open standards. WiMAX devices in the sense of communication between different vendors can still be done (not proprietary). With large data speeds (up to 70 MBps), WiMAX can be applied for broadband connection ‘last mile’, or backhaul.
Wi Max BWA Standards which is currently commonly accepted and widely used standard is issued by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE), such as the 802.15 standard for Personal Area Network (PAN), 802.11 network for Wireless Fidelity (WiFi), and 802.16 network for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX).
At the cellular network has also developed technology that can stream data to the overlay with voice networks such as GPRS, EDGE, WCDMA, and HSDPA. Each evolution in general lead to the ability to provide a variety of new services or services that could lead to channel the voice, video and data simultaneously (triple play). So the strategy of developing differentiated wireless broadband services to Mobile Network Operators (MnO) and Broadband Provider (BP). Comparison of some characteristics of high-speed wireless data system is described by the First Boston as follows.
Comparative Development of Wireless Technology
|WiFi 802.11g||WiMAX 802.16-2004*||WiMAX 802.16e||CDMA2000 1x EV-DO||WCDMA/ UMTS|
|Approximate max reach (dependent on many factors)||100 Meters||8 Km||5 Km||*||*|
|Maximum throughput||54 Mbps||75 Mbps (20 MHz band)||30 Mbps (10 MHz band)||3.1 Mbps (EVDO Rev. A)||2 Mbps (10+ Mbps fpr HSDPA)|
|Typical Frequency bands||2.4 GHz||2-11 GHz||2-6 GHz||1900 MHz||1800,1900,2100 MHz|
|Application||Wireless LAN||Fixed Wireless Broadband (eg-DSL alternative)||Portable Wireless Broadband||Mobile Wireless Broadband||Mobile Wireless Broadband|
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a certification mark for products that pass the test match and in accordance with IEEE 802.16 standards. WiMAX is a wireless technology that provides broadband connection in the distance. WiMAX is a broadband technology that has high speed access and wide coverage. WiMAX is an evolution from previous BWA technology with the features of the more interesting. In addition to higher data speeds can be given, WiMAX also brings the issue of open standards. WiMAX devices in the sense of communication between different vendors can still be done (not proprietary). With large data speeds (up to 70 MBps), WiMAX eligible applied for ‘last mile’ broadband connections, backhaul, enterprise and high speed.
What differentiates WiMAX with Wi-Fi is a technical standard which merged in it. If the IEEE 802.11 WiFi standard combine with ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Intitute), HiperLAN as technical standards suitable for WLAN, WiMAX, while a merger between the IEEE 802.16 standard by ETSI HiperMAN standards.
IEEE Standard output is used widely in many regions of origin, United States, while the output of ETSI standards widely used in Europe and surrounding areas. To make this technology can be used globally, the WiMax were created. Both standards are unified is the technical standard specification that is suitable for providing broadband connectivity through wireless media type or known by the BWA.
WiMAX Frequency Spectrum
As a technology based on the frequency, the success of WiMAX depends on the availability and suitability of the frequency spectrum. Wireless systems recognize two types of frequency bands ie Licensed and unlicensed band Band. Licensed band requires a license or authority of the regulator, which obtained a licensed band operators are given exclusive rights to hold services in a particular area. While unlicensed band that does not require a license in their use allows anyone to use freely frequencies in all areas.
WiMAX Forum established two main frequency bands in certication profile for Fixed WiMAX (band 5.3 GHz and 5.8 GHz), while the fourth set for Mobile WiMAX frequency bands in the system-a release profile, ie the band 2.3 GHz, 2.5 GHz, 3.3 GHz and 3.5 GHz .
Generally, there are several alternative frequencies for WiMAX technology in accordance with the frequency map of the world. From the alternative frequency band 3.5 GHz to Fixed WiMAX frequencies majority in some countries, especially for countries in Europe, Canada, Middle East, Australia and parts of Asia. While the majority of the frequencies used for Mobile WiMAX at 2.5 GHz.
Issues Fixed WiMAX frequencies in the 3.3 GHz band that only appeared in Asian countries. This is related to the use of 3.5 GHz band for satellite communications, as well as in Indonesia. 3.5 GHz band used by satellites in Indonesia Telkom and PSN to provide IDR and broadcast TV services. Thus the use of a joint between the satellite and terrestrial wireless (BWA) in the 3.5 GHz frequency will cause the potential for interference, especially on the side of the satellite.
Element WiMAX Devices
Element / WiMAX devices generally consist of BS in the center and the CPE at the customer side. However there is still an additional devices such as antennas, cables and other accessories.
Base Station (BS)
Is a device transceiver (transmitter and receiver) that is usually installed one location (colocated) with a network of Internet Protocol (IP). From this base station will be connected to multiple CPE interfaces with media of radio waves (RF) WiMAX standard. BS components consist of:
* NPU (networking card processing unit)
* AU (access unit card) up to 6 +1
* PIU (power interface unit) 1 +1
* AVU (Ventilation water units)
* PSU (power supply unit) 3 +1
Antenna that can be used in the BS sector, 60 °, 90 °, or 120 ° depending on the area to be served.
Subscriber Station (SS)
In general the Subscriber Station (SS) or (Customer Premises Equipment) CPE consists of Outdoor Unit (ODU) and an Indoor Unit (IDU), there is a separate radio device and there is integrated with an antenna.
WiMAX Technology and Services
BWA WiMAX is a standards-based technology that enables distribution through the use of wireless broadband access as a complement wireline. WiMAX provides last mile access in fixed, nomadic, portable and mobile unconditionally LOS (NLOS) between the user and base station. WiMAX is also a BWA system that has the ability interoperabilty between different devices. WiMAX is designed to provide the services of Point to Multipoint (PMP) or Point to Point (PTP). With data transmission capability up to 10 Mbps / user.
WiMAX Development in a wide range of abilities. Fixed WiMAX was developed principally from the WiFi system, so the limitations of WiFi can be equipped with this system, especially in terms of coverage / distance, quality and warranty service (QoS). Meanwhile, Mobile WiMAX can be developed to compensate for cellular technology such as GSM, CDMA 2000 or 3G. Advantage Mobile WiMAX found on the system configuration is much simpler and data transmission capability is higher. Therefore, the WiMAX system is very likely and easily held by a new operator or even small-scale service providers. However, mobility capabilities of Mobile WiMAX is still under the capacity of cellular technology.
WiMax is a term used to describe the standards and the implementation capable of operating based on IEEE 802.16 wireless networks, such as WiFi that operates based on IEEE802.11 Wireless LAN standard. However, its implementation is very different from WiMax to WiFi.
On WiFi, as the OSI Layer, is standard on the second layer, where the Media Access Control (MAC) access method of competition, ie where several terminals at the same time gaining access. While the WiMax MAC access method based scheduling algorithm (scheduling algorithm). Access method with the competition, then services such as Voice over IP or IPTV which depend on the Quality of Service (Quality of Service) which is stable to less good. While on WiMax, which is used scheduling algorithm, then if after a terminal received guarantees to obtain a number of resources (such as timeslot), the wireless network will continue to provide these resources for a terminal in need.
WiMax standard was originally designed for a frequency range of 10 sd 66 GHz. 802.16a, updated in 2004 to 802.16-2004 (also known as 802.16d) adds a frequency range of 2 sd 11 GHz in the specification. Also known as 802.16d fixed WiMax, updated again to 802.16e in 2005 (known as mobile WiMax) and uses orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), which has more scalability than the 802.16d standard that uses 256 OFDM sub-carriers. Use this new OFDM provides advantages in terms cakupang, installation, power consumption, frequency and efficiency of the use of frequency bands. Using standard 802.16e WiMax has the ability to hand over or hand off, as is appropriate in mobile communications.
Number of institutions that are interested in the 802.16d and .16 e standards because the standard uses a lower frequency so it is better to damping and thus have a better penetration into the building. At present, there are already commercial network using WiMax device certified in accordance with the standard 802 162.
WiMax specifications led to an improvement over the limitations of WiFi standard provides greater bandwidth and better encryption. WiMax standard provides a connection without the need for Line of Sight (LOS) in certain situations. Non-LOS propagation requires .16 d or revised standards 16.e, because it takes a lower frequency. Also, it should be used in muli-path signals (multi-path signals), as the 802.16n standard.
[Edit] Benefits of Building a Network LAN (Local Area Network)
Many of the benefits gained from the creation of this industrial standardization. The telecom operators can save an investment tool, due to the ability of WiMAX to serve customers with a larger area and higher level of compatibility. In addition, the market is also more widespread because WiMAX can fill this gap for broadband technology is not affordable by Cable and DSL (Digital Subscriber Line).
One of the WiMAX technology enables them to get a quality Internet connection and perform the activity. While the wireless media over the media is already renowned as the most economical in obtaining an Internet connection. Its coverage area 50 km and its ability to deliver maximum data transfer rate high in the distance, giving a huge contribution to the existence of wireless MAN and can close any gaps existing broadband. In terms of condition during the process of communication, WiMAX technology can serve the subscriber, either in a position to Line Of Sight (positioning devices that wish to communicate still be within view of the straight and free from any obstructions in front of it) with the BTS or does not allow for that (Non-Line Of Sight). So no matter where its users are, as long as included in the coverage area of a BTS (Base Transceiver Stations), they may still be able to enjoy the connection is delivered by the BTS.
Also, it can serve both the users with a fixed antenna (fixed wireless), for example in office buildings, houses, shops, etc., and who often move around the place or other mobile device. They can enjoy broadband internet was through this medium. While the range is relatively wide frequency spectrum, so users can still connect with the BTS as long as they are in the operating frequency range of the BTS.
His work system MAC (Media Access Control) that existed at the Data Link Layer is connection oriented, allowing their users to form video and voice communications. Who does not want, to the Internet cheap, easy, and comfortable with the quality of broadband without having to bother. You just install the PCI card that is compatible with WiMAX standards, or simply buy a PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) which has support with WiMAX communications. Or maybe you simply buy a portable antenna with an ethernet interface which can be brought anywhere to get an Internet connection from base stations for fixed wireless.
WiMAX Test Equipment
* Rohde & Schwarz (See also the Rohde & Schwarz WiMAX homepages)
* Agilent Technologies (Agilent WiMAX See also the homepage)
* Sanjole (See also the Sanjole homepages)
* Anritsu (See also the )
Vendors / manufactures WiMAX
Following is a manufacturer of WiMAX devices
* InfiNet Wireless
WiMAX in Indonesia
In Indonesia, a license to operate WiMAX networks in the frequency of 2.3 GHz is given through an auction process conducted by the Directorate General of Posts and Telecommunications Depkominfo the results announced on July 16, 2009  . Lelangnya results are:
|1||Sumatera Utara||PT First Media||7.201.000.000|
|2||Sumatera Bagian Tengah||PT Berca Hardaya Perkasa||5.125.000.000|
|3||Sumatera Bagian Selatan||PT Berca Hardaya Perkasa||5.125.000.000|
|4||Banten dan Jabodetabek||PT First Media||121.201.000.000|
|5||Jawa Barat||PT Comtronic System dan PT Adiwarta Perdana (konsorsium)||25.218.000.000|
|6||Jawa Tengah||PT Telkom||18.654.000.000|
|7||Jawa Timur||PT Comtronic System dan PT Adiwarta Perdana (konsorsium)||31.518.000.000|
|8||Bali dan NTB||PT Berca Hardaya Perkasa||5.100.000.000|
|10||Maluku dan Maluku Utara||PT Telkom||533.000.000|
|11||Sulawesi Selatan||PT Berca Hardaya Perkasa||5.299.000.000|
|12||Sulawesi Bagian Utara||PT Telkom||1.177.000.000|
|13||Kalimantan Barat||PT Berca Hardaya Perkasa||6.991.000.000|
|14||Kalimantan Bagian Timur||PT Berca Hardaya Perkasa||3.490.000.000|
|15||Kepulauan Riau||PT Berca Hardaya Perkasa||4.000.000.000.|